"Appropriate roles and responsibilities for SLPs are dynamic in relation to the evolving
knowledge base and have implications for research, academic, and clinical education. These
roles include, but are not limited to:
- preventing written language problems by fostering language acquisition and emergent literacy
- identifying children at risk for reading and writing problems
- assessing reading and writing
- providing intervention and documenting outcomes for reading and writing
- assuming other roles, such as providing assistance to general education teachers, parents,
and students; advocating for effective literacy practices; and advancing the knowledge
"Print Motivation: Thinking that books and reading are fun.
Vocabulary: Know the names of things
Print awareness: Recognizing print and understanding how books work.
Narrative skills: Being able to tell stories and describe things.
Letter knowledge: Understanding that each letter has its own name and sound.
Phonemic awareness is the understanding that words are made up of sounds which can be
assembled in different ways to make different words."
Group risk factors
"It is abundantly clear that some groups of children are at risk for reading difficulties because
they are affected by any or all of the following conditions:
- they are expected to attend schools in which achievement is chronically low
- they reside in low-income families and live in poor neighborhoods
- they have limited proficiency in spoken English
- they speak a dialect of English that differs substantially from the one used in school
Individual risk factors
The evidence also indicates that individual children, whether or not faced with the adverse
conditions just mentioned, may be at greater risk than other otherwise-comparable children for
reading difficulties for any or all of the following reasons:
- they are children of parents with histories of reading difficulty
- they have acquired less knowledge and skill pertaining to literacy during the preschool
years, either through lack of appropriate home literacy experiences and/or as a result of
some inherent cognitive limitations
- they lack age-appropriate skills in literacy-related cognitive-linguistic processing,
especially phonological awareness, confrontational naming, sentence/story recall, and
general language ability
- they have been diagnosed as having specific early language impairment
- they have a hearing impairment
- they have a primary medical diagnosis with which reading problems tend to occur as a